Conjoint Retention Theory
Paivio's encoding theory concerns the processing of incoming information. It suggests ways that instructional material can be presented in order to maximize the intake of input. A tangent theory by Kulhavy, Lee and Caterino (1985), concerns the retention of processed information and the recall event for dually encoded (inter-connected) data. "The conjoint retention hypothesis is essentially a rendition of the dual coding approach.” The difference is that conjoint retention theory focuses more on the recall activity rather than the initial encoding process.

The verbal information can only have adherence to images that are meaningfully representative of the verbal proposition. Meaningful representation can be created either through convention (Winn & Solomon,1993) or by relationship to reality (the degree of realism). The animations created for this study have a conventional relationship to the propositions explained.  It is a convention to expect that a sequence of words will be perceived as having a left-to-right order, so that the word farthest left is in the "first position" and the one farthest right is "last." Another convention dictates that a movement toward the right signifies a movement toward "the end." The spatial arrangements of linguistic elements plays a large role in the establishment of meaning (Winn & Solomon, 1993).

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