Sample size shrunk between the proposal and the data collection, and again between the pretest and the posttest.



There were 41 participants available to view the instructional treatments and to take the posttests, but only 36 represented matched pairs, (i.e., 18 matched pairs). As seen in Table 1, there had been 21 matched pairs available for the pretest, but three absences for the posttest eliminated three of those pairs, leaving three unmatched participants, in addition to the two unmatched participants of the pretest total.

A pretest survey investigated the participantsí characteristics concerning their prior experience with German and with L2 in general.
Chi-square analyses revealed no significant differences between groups based on their L2 experiences.