Participants were students enrolled in three sections of beginning German I at a state university in the southeastern United States. Ages of participants ranged from 18- 60 years, with a large proportion in their early 20's. Sixty-six students registered for one of  three sections of the course designated GER1120. Due to drop-outs and absences, there were 44 participants available to take the pretest.

Within each class section, the participants were ranked, matched, and then randomly divided into two groups, which were randomly assigned to either animated or static presentation.