were students enrolled in three sections of beginning German I at a state
university in the southeastern United States. Ages of participants ranged
from 18- 60 years, with a large proportion in their early 20's. Sixty-six
students registered for one of three
sections of the course designated GER1120. Due to drop-outs and absences,
there were 44 participants available to take the pretest.
class section, the participants were ranked, matched, and then randomly
divided into two groups, which were randomly assigned to either animated or