encoding theory concerns the processing of incoming information. It suggests
ways that instructional material can be presented in order to maximize the
intake of input. A tangent theory by Kulhavy, Lee and Caterino (1985),
concerns the retention of processed information and the recall event for
dually encoded (inter-connected) data. "The conjoint retention
hypothesis is essentially a rendition of the dual coding approach.” The
difference is that conjoint retention theory focuses more on the recall
activity rather than the initial encoding process.
information can only have adherence to images that are meaningfully
representative of the verbal proposition. Meaningful representation can be
created either through convention (Winn & Solomon,1993) or by
relationship to reality (the degree of realism). The animations created for
this study have a conventional relationship to the propositions
explained. It is a convention to
expect that a sequence of words will be perceived as having a left-to-right order,
so that the word farthest left is in the "first position" and the
one farthest right is "last." Another convention dictates that a
movement toward the right signifies a movement toward "the end."
The spatial arrangements of linguistic elements plays a large role in the
establishment of meaning (Winn & Solomon, 1993).